Tilting Quad Velomobile

When researching tilting before my first attempts I read that motor cycles are tilted over first then turned otherwise once in the turn the forces trying to make you go in a straight line are harder to overcome to get the required tilt angle.
It also seemed more jet fighter like !
I have also seen bad reports from people who try to use tilt locks [ mine did not need them as yours doesn't ] when the tilt is locked out the steering needs you to start of turned in the opposite direction to the desired turn however when unlocked it behaves in the opposite way ?
ps impressive as usual
Thanks Paul.
I've been looking at your World HPV posts. Lots of nice building going on, but I must have missed the post about your training regime.
Yikes! It's been over 4 months since I posted anything. As a number of AZers have already mentioned, "Sometimes life just gets in the way".
Now, about the tilting and steering stuff. Yes, steering in the opposite direction (counter-steer) to lean towards the inside of the curved path is not something I have to think about. But, if I start to manually steer before I initiate the desired lean using the tilt apparatus, I can feel the velo wanting to lean in the opposite direction of my simple steering maneuver. This serves to remind me that I have to FIRST lean and then use simple steer to tighten the turning radius and to enjoy the feeling as I relax my hold on the tilt apparatus to allow the velo to return back to upright as I exit the corner.
I've been told that this action (the force returning the velo back to upright) is the result of counter-steering, but it totally feels like simple steer to me
All the best with your low racer.
Looks like you have excellent control in a turn.
Yes, the quad feels stable even when traction is temporarily lost. I think I's because I'm always applying the mechanical apparatus and when I add the thumb steering it becomes "dual tilt control" ( steer to tilt control & direct tilt control).
That may not be an accurate explanation, but it seems to work out well, and it's good fun.
So, my velo got some ink outside of the AZ site. I did provide the info for the "New Atlas" article which included info about this excellent DIYers site (but that did not appear in the article). Then within a few days of the 1st article, and without my knowledge, additional articles just mushroomed onto the internet and included my name etc.
Well, now that my cover is blown, I'm going to follow Paul's approach and sign-off using my first name.
We [ AZ community ] are just pleased you are fit and well and able to carry on with your project.
Training not going as well as I would like , 3 times a week I do about 14 miles with 5 hills.
Figured training would consist of attacking the hills with gusto and getting fitter ' no gain without pain ' approach.
So this week for instance Monday rained off , Wednesday took Mum out for breakfast so no ride , Friday may go out with SWMBO and maybe the same next Monday.
So that plan ain't working is it !
This winter I came up with a different riding technique for making a quicker turn-around on a residential street. It is shown in the following video.
Before this, my technique involved slowing right down with the velo in an upright posture, and using thumb steering to make the turn while holding the velo upright with the tilt apparatus.. Both techniques result in similar size turning circles, but my new approach is quicker and more fun-especially when exiting the circle.
In the video I use the Tilt Apparatus to FIRST lean to the inside of the turn. Then I use thumb steering to tighten the turning circle (in the video I nudged it to max steer angle). The steer angle is at max when the inside front wheel almost touches the concave indent of the nose cone

Too bad the feeling experienced in the "return to upright" motion when exiting the circle can't be captured in the video. It feels really neat.
When it gets a bit warmer, I plan to fabricate the single-sided swingarm for the switch-over from the quad to a delta.
Wow, I missed this post.
The velo seems to defy the ice like it was on tracks.
Great stuff.

Thanks Brad.
Yes, I'm pleased with the quad's performance in our winter conditions.
It's unfortunate that gov't regulations will not legally recognize the quad as an e-bike. I'm firmly convinced that a vehicle's dimensions (primarily width) should be used to determine it's suitability (functional fit with cycle lanes) rather than the number of wheels.
As it is, current regulations permit the delta to be eligible for e-assist, but my equally sized quad, with its better traction, is not. Well, as they say, know when to pick your battles. For me, it's a lot quicker and easier to switch from the quad to a delta than it is to try to change gov't regulations.


The first photo illustrates the form of the delta's single-sided swingarm. Like on the quad, this swingarm, in combination with the non-rotating hub, keeps the steering axis vertically aligned with the center line of the tire and retains the zero degree rake steering axis, as found on your everyday caster


The 12 mm square tube located to the outside of the swingarm is part of the manual steering. It serves to connect the steering knuckle with the front wheel tie rod. As with the quad, the manual steering linkage remains passive and does not interfere with the operation of F to C steering while moving forward.
The next photo shows that the quad's dual front swingarms (with wheels attached) just drop-out as a complete unit. I just disconnected the hose clamps from the two front spindles and the tie rods from the steering knuckle.


The weight difference between the dual front swingarms (with both wheels attached) and the single-sided swingarm (with it's one wheel) is 6.8 Kg. This weight loss will likely be made-up by the added weight of the e-assist components.
In the next photo, the delta's front swingarm is attached to a spindle which is fastened to a mounting bracket on the main frame.


I installed a rubber stopper between the back end of the swingarm and a plate attached to the main frame. This provides adjustable suspension travel for the front wheel which is currently at 20 mm.
My next post will focus on adding e-assist to the delta.
Nice design!
The last photo might be tricking my eyes, seems you have a negative caster angle?
Look forward to seeing the ride video.

Nice design!
The last photo might be tricking my eyes, seems you have a negative caster angle?
Look forward to seeing the ride video.

Thanks Brad. I'm pleased that the 12 mm sq. tube pivots on the outside of the bend (in the 30 mm sq, tube). This allowed me to max-out the steer angle of the front wheel when turning to the left.
You're right. The axis appears to have a negative caster angle. I think it has to do with the camera angle. In my next post I will try to include a photo from a more accurate perspective.
ADDING e-ASSIST Thanks to an AZ post

About two years ago I mentioned to Hugh that I was looking forward to eventually getting my project to the stage of his completed e-delta. At that time I was planning on using a 500 watt single-sided All Axle Hub motor. That hub motor, which is designed to be placed onto the front wheel(s) of a tadpole, could also be mounted onto the left rear swingarm of my velo.
Well, this past winter, as I thought about installing that hub motor, I began to consider the structural modifications I would need to perform on the velo to accommodate it. For starters, the hub motor comes with a spoke wheel which would require slightly different dimensions for the swingarm. I would also have to modify the tail section to accommodate the placement of the caliper brake between the spoke wheel and the shell.
To top it off, after these modifications, I would still end-up with miss-matched wheels (a spoke e-hub on the left, with its externally mounted brake, and a yellow Fiber Glass wheel on the right, with its brake tucked inside the shallow dished wheel behind the blue aero-cover). Not good.
So, I began to look for optional ways to install e-assist. That's when I came across AZ members discussing the pros and cons of a 450 watt brush motor with controller etc. This item is sold as a kit designed to be mounted onto the left side of a bicycle to drive a sprocket fastened to the spokes of the rear wheel.
Well, I immediately saw the possibility of this kit to be easily mounted onto my velo's rear swingarm without modifications.
So I ordered the kit.
The photo below shows the 450 watt motor mounted onto the left rear swingarm with a chain to drive the original FG wheel.


So, thank you to the AZ members for posting that information. (I think it was stormbird and Popshot).
I now have an inexpensive and simple to install e-assist set-up.
The next photos show that, except for the single-sided front swingarm with wheel attached, the rest of the velo remains unchanged.


The camera angle in the next photo depicts the zero degree rake of the steering axis a little better.


My next step is to fabricate a fiber glass nosecone for the delta.
Click for DIY Plans!